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FCE is Important for EDI Electrodeionization System Performance

EDI, Why FCE is Important for Electrodeionization System Performance The performance of electrodeionization (EDI) systems depends upon several key feed water constituents. When these constituents are considered together a Feed Conductivity Equivalent, or FCE may be determined. For an electrodeionization system to operate properly, the feed water must be high-quality Reverse Osmosis (RO) permeate. An … Read more

History of Electrodeionization

Electrodeionization (EDI) history extends back to the mid-1970’s in the USA. Possibly back to Argonne National Labs in the 1950’s as a scientific novelty. However, the first working EDI modules were made by Harry O’Hare in 1977 and 1978, and were tested by the Southern Research Institute (SRI).  The concept was “filled-cell ED”, an attempt … Read more

Electrodeionization (EDI) using Voltage Control

In electrodeionization, DC voltage is the force for driving ions out of the stream to be purified. Current is a result of the movement of ions. Both as a matter of physics and as a practical matter, SnowPure recommends using “Voltage Control” for EDI: set the DC voltage potential to the EDI system and walk … Read more

Electrodeionization is a Continuous Process

Unlike mixed bed DI, electrodeionization (EDI) is continuous. Because electrodeionization is continuous there are no spikes in quality as when mixed beds are changed for batch regeneration. An additional benefit for EDI users is that there is no concern about the timing of changing batches, or planning for the eventual breakthrough of ions in the … Read more

For EDI: 1-pass or 2-pass RO?

Electrodeionization today must be pretreated with RO for numerous reasons.  But what are the advantages and disadvantages of 1-pass and 2-pass RO as pretreatment? Many Electrodeionization (EDI) systems using Electropure™ EDI perform very well with 1-pass RO.  It’s easy to achieve 17+ Megohm with 1-pass RO.  Most USP WFI and Purified Water systems easily meet … Read more

Heat Sanitization Basics for Ultrapure and Pharmaceutical Water

Even small numbers of bacteria are a problem for critical water systems like pharmaceutical USP water, dialysis water, and ultrapure water for semiconductor manufacturing. Bacteria are often killed with UV-254, chemicals, and heat. Chemical sanitization is often undesirable or prohibited, creating a steady change-over to pure water systems that can be sanitized with heat. Most bacteria are killed at … Read more

Electrodeionization for Power Plants — Importance of Silica

Power plants use high purity water to drive steam turbines. Cogeneration and combined-cycle power plants are highly-efficient, using both exhaust turbines and high-pressure steam turbines. The steam must be of the highest purity. In the 1960’s, boilers operated at 450°C (840°F) and 4MPa (40 atmospheres). Today’s leading edge combined cycle systems operate at 620°C (1150°F) and … Read more

Operating Electrodeionization in a High-Silica Feedwater Environment

High silica feedwaters pose two challenges for ultrapure water membrane systems. On the front end, silica can scale the RO membranes, limiting use of some feedwaters and high water recovery. On the back end, silica can scale the IX resins in the electrodeionization (EDI). It is also a challenge to attain the very low ppb … Read more

SnowPure Water Technologies Honored with Prestigious Export Award

March 21, 2018–NASBITE International Celebrates Exporting Excellence by Honoring U.S. Firms with Prestigious Export Award, including SnowPure Water Technologies in California —  Today, NASBITE International honored 31 U.S. companies that export goods and services during the 2018 National Small Business Exporter Summit in Baltimore, Maryland.  Companies representing 24 states, were recognized as Outstanding Exporters in … Read more