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FCE is Important for EDI Electrodeionization System Performance

EDI, Why FCE is Important for Electrodeionization System Performance FCE is Important for EDI System Performance. Electrodeionization systems depend on conductivity, CO2, and Silica; all brought together by using FCE, or Feedwater Conductivity Equivalent. For an electrodeionization system to operate properly, the feed water must be high-quality Reverse Osmosis (RO) permeate. An RO permeate water … Read more

History of Electrodeionization

Electrodeionization (EDI) history extends back to the mid-1970’s in the USA. Possibly back to Argonne National Labs in the 1950’s as a scientific novelty. However, the first working EDI modules were made by Harry O’Hare in 1977 and 1978, and were tested by the Southern Research Institute (SRI).  The concept was “filled-cell ED”, an attempt … Read more

Electrodeionization (EDI) using Voltage Control

In electrodeionization, DC voltage is the force for driving ions out of the stream to be purified. Current is a result of the movement of ions. Both as a matter of physics and as a practical matter, SnowPure recommends using “Voltage Control” for EDI: set the DC voltage potential to the EDI system and walk … Read more

For EDI: 1-pass or 2-pass RO?

What are the advantages and disadvantages of single pass and double pass RO as pretreatment for EDI?  Electrodeionization must be pretreated with RO for numerous reasons. Many Electrodeionization (EDI) systems using Electropure™ EDI perform very well with 1-pass RO.  It’s easy to achieve 17+ Megohm with 1-pass RO.  Most USP WFI and Purified Water systems … Read more

Operating Electrodeionization in a High-Silica Feedwater Environment

High silica feedwaters pose two challenges for ultrapure water membrane systems. On the front end, silica can scale the RO membranes, limiting use of some feedwaters and high water recovery. On the back end, silica can scale the IX resins in the electrodeionization (EDI). It is also a challenge to attain the very low ppb … Read more